VITAMINS

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VITAMINS

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Vitamins are either fat-soluble (A, D, E, K) or water-soluble (e.g. B vitamins or vitamin C). They consist mainly of the elements nitrogen, oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in body fat, while water-soluble vitamins are used or quickly excreted in the urine.

Vitamin A is essential for the eyes, skin, hair, and bones; the B vitamins help enzymes to function; C is essential for formation of collagen; D helps the body absorb calcium; E prevents cell damage; and K helps blood clotting.

Most vitamins cannot be produced by the body and so must be obtained directly from food. Here are the examples of food sources: VITAMIN A (RETINOL) can be found in carrots, calf´s liver, fortified milk products or melons. VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) is included with nuts, pork, peas and whole grains instead VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) is in meat, eggs or cheese. There is also VITAMIN B6 (PYRIDOXINE), which you can find in fish, vegetables, wholegrain products and fruit and VITAMIN B12 (CYANOCOBALAMIN) contained in beef, milk, poultry and seafood. If you eat fish, wholegrain products, meat and poultry and peanuts you won´t have no lack of NIACIN (NICOTINIC ACID). For FOLIC ACID eat offal, green leafy vegetables and nuts. Citrus fruits, broccoli, strawberries plus green peppers bring you VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID). Instead for VITAMIN D you must eat oily fish, fortified cereals and bread, fortified margarine and eggs. VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROL) is included in vegetable oils, green leafy vegetable, seafood or egg yolks and finally VITAMIN K could be found in green leafy vegetables, pork liver, fruit, grain products and cauliflower.

The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient liver would help cure night blindness, an illness now known to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency.

In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen is not properly formed, and which is characterized by poor wound healing, bleeding of the gums, and severe pain. Other scientist Christiaan Eijkman in 1897 discovered that eating unpolished rice instead of the polished variety helped to prevent the disease called beriberi. The following year, Frederic Hopkins postulated that some foods contained "accessory factors" - in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, et cetera - that were necessary for the functions of the human body. Hopkins, Eijkman, Szent-Györgyi, Doisy or Henrik Dam awarded the Nobel Prize. There are many others who dedicated their lives to the science and there will be many others who will continue and will award many other prizes to help us!


Accessory = druhotný, připojený, průvodní, dodatečný
Acid = kyselina
Ancient = starověký, prastarý, pradávný, starý, antický
Award = dostat, obdržet ocenění
Beriberi = beri-beri (označení choroby, která vzniká při nedostatku vitamínu B1, projevuje se zánětem nervů, psychickými problémy a otoky, popř. srdeční nedostatečností)
Bleeding = krvácení
Blood = krev
Carbon = uhlík
Calf = tele
Cauliflower = květák, karfiol
Cell = buňka
Clotting = srážení
Consist of = skládat se z
Contain = obsahovat
Cure = léčit, odstranit, napravit, uzdravit
Damage = poškození, zničení
Deadly = smrtelný
Dedicate = zavětit, věnovat se
Deficiency = nedostatek
Disease = onemocnění, choroba
Either…or = buď a nebo
Excrete = vylučovat, vyměšovat
Fat-soluble = rozpustný v tucích
Feeding = krmení, podávání jídla
Fortified milk = obohacené mléko
Grain = zrno, vlákno
Gum = dáseň
Hydrogen = vodík
Identify = určit, poznat, rozpoznat, identifikovat
Lack of = nedostatek, chybění
Leafy = listnatý
Liver = játra
Maintain = udržovat, podporovat, pokračovat
Night blindness = noční slepota, nyktalopie
Nitrogen = dusík
Nobel Prize = Nobelova cena
Obtain = získat, dostat, opatřit si, obstarat si
Offal = otruby, tzv. droby (= játra, mozeček, jazyk, oháňka)
Oxygen = kyslík
Peas = hrách
Polished = šlechtěný
Poor wound healing = špatné hojení rány
Postulate = předpokládat, žádat, stanovit, vyhradit si
Poultry = drůbež
Prevent = předejít, předcházet
Properly = pořádně, řádně, správně, důkladně, náležitě
Recognize = rozpoznat
Science = věda
Scurvy = kurděje
Severe = ostrý, těžký, hrozný
Store = uložit
Surgeon = lékař, chirurg
Unpolished = nešlechtěný
Urine = moč
Value of = fodnota, cena čeho
Water-soluble = rozpustný ve vodě
Wholegrain = celozrnný
Yolk = žloutek




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