A candle

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A candle

seriál :: Language corner

A candle is a light source. Prior to the mid 19th century, candles were frequently made from tallow (a byproduct of beef-fat rendering). The fuel now is nearly always some form of wax, with paraffin wax being the most common. Candles made from gel, soy, beeswax, and vegetable products are also available.

The history of candle making does not belong to any one country as it was developed independently in many countries. In Rome, around the first century, candles were made out of tallow and the pith of rushes. The Egyptians and Cretans made the candle from beeswax, as early as 3000 BC. The Chinese created candles from whale fat during the Qin Dynasty (221–206 BC). In early China and Japan, tapers were made with wax from insects and seeds, wrapped in paper. In India, wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles. During the first century AD, indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest fused oil from the eulachon, or "candlefish", for illumination. Excavations at Pompeii, Italy, revealed several candelabra.

As mentioned, the early candle was made from various forms of natural fat, tallow, and wax, but already in the 18th century, spermaceti, oil produced by the sperm whale, was used to produce a superior candle! Late in the 18th century, colza oil and rapeseed oil came into use as much cheaper substitutes. Paraffin was first distilled in 1830, and revolutionized candle-making, as it was an inexpensive material which produced a high-quality, odorless candle that burned reasonably cleanly. The industry was devastated soon after, however, by the distillation of kerosene (confusingly also called paraffin oil or just paraffin). This excellent fuel for lamps gave the candle its current status as a primarily decorative item. Recently resin based candles that are freestanding and transparent have been developed, with the claim that they burn longer than traditional paraffin candles.

Before the domestication of electricity, the candle was also a common source of lighting, before, and later in addition to, the oil lamp. Due to local availability and the cost of resources, for several centuries up to the 19th century the candle was more common in northern Europe, and olive oil lamps more common in southern Europe and around the Mediterranean Sea. Candle makers were known as chandlers. Various devices have been invented to secure candles into place, from simple tabletop candle holders, to elaborate chandeliers.

Today, the candle is usually used for their aesthetic value, particularly to setsoft, warm, or romantic ambiance, and for emergency lighting during electrical power failures.

The scented candle is common in aromatherapy and of course, the candles are traditionally used to light up Christmas trees and decorate them and also in Advent wreaths.

AC = našeho letopočtu
Aesthetic = estetický
Ambiance = prostředí
As mentioned = jak bylo poznamenáno
BC = před naším letopočtem
Beef-fat = hovězí lůj
Belong to = patřit k
Byproduct = vedlejší produkt, výrobek
Candelabra = lustr, svícen
Cinnamon = skořice
Claim = požadavek
Colza oil = řepkový olej
Come into use = začít používat
Common = obvyklý
Cretan = obyvatel Kréty
Current = aktuální, nynější
Device = zařízení, nápad, vynález
Distillation = destilace
Distilled = destilovaný
Due to = zásluhou, díky
Elaborate = propracovaný, vypracovaný, komplikovaný, důkladný
Electrical power failure = výpadek elektrické energie
Eulachon/ candlefish = tzv. halama nebo-li Thaleichthys pacificus (malá anadromní ryba žijící v Tichém oceánu)
Excavations = vykopávky
Freestanding = volně stojící, přenosný
Fuel = pohonná látka
Fuse = tavit
Chandelier = lustr
Chandler = hokynář, kramář, kupec, svíčkař
In addition to = navíc k, kromě, vedle
Indigenous = původní, domorodý
Item = prvek, položka
Kerosene = petrolej
Odorless = bez vůně
Paraffin = petrolej, parafín
Pith = jádro, dužina
Prior to = před, dříve než
Rapeseed oil = palmový olej
Reasonably = rozumně, snesitelně
Recently = v poslední době
Rendering = vyřazení

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